|ERA||Stone age-Paleolithic||Mesolithic - Bronze age||Iron age||Hellenistic||Roman|
|CLIMATE||End of last ice-age||N.Africa, middle-east
|increasingly arid, middle east, Africa|
|Levant, Jordan valley ,||11,000 Natufian settlements||7000 Jericho||1800 Hittites
1450 Moses leads Jews from Egypt
|1200-500 Phoenicia - modern alphabet
970 king Solomon, Israel
|632-750 Muslim conquests|
|Mesopotamia||9000 Göbekli Tepe temple||Samarra, agriculture & pottery||3200 Sumerian cuneiform script, 2400 Assyria||1900-539 Babylon
1772 Hammurabi's Code
|539 Persian occupation
|762CE Baghdad Muslim capital|
|Persia||2000-1500 Scythians, Medes come from Central Asia||549 Cyrus the Great||330 Alexander
246 Parthian empire
|224 Sassanian dynasty||640 Muslim rule starts|
|Nile valley||5200 Early settlements - Fayum||3000 Early Hieroglyph writing
|1640 Hyksos invasion
1500-1200 temples Luxor, Karnak
|Cleopatra, Roman conquest 30BCE|
|Mediteranean||3000-1100 Minoa [Crete]
, 1628 There eruption-tsunamis
|Mycenae 1600-1100||753 Rome founded
150 Roman empire
|330CE Byzantium founded|
|Central, Western Europe||Cave paintings, France||3000-2000 Stonehenge||1600 Kurgan culture||1000 Celtic culture||100 Roman conquest||481 Clovis starts Frankish empire||843 Charlemagne emperor|
|Black Sea - Caspian plains||6000-3000 Kurgan settlements,
copper tools, gold ornaments
|2000 two wheeled chariots||700 Scythia||Dacians fight Roman expansion||Byzantine expansion northward|
|Indus, Ganges valleys||2500 Indus valley culture, scripts||1500 Aryan invasion||Vedic age||530 Persian invasion
321-150 Mauryan empire
|320CE-550CE Gupta empire||720CE Muslim invasion|
|China||7000 Jiahu agriculture- musical instrument||6000 Yellow River settlements
|2100-1600 X'ia dynasty||1600-1100 Shang dynasty
|1100-206 Zhou dynasty
770-500 Cultural rise
Great Wall built.
206BCE-220CE Han Dynasty
|Three kingdoms||Tang empire|
|S.E. Asia||1500 Dong Sun culture||500 Sa Huynh culture [Viet Nam]
Pyu states [Myanmar]
|600 Olmec writing||200 Mayan script||building of Mayan pyramids||600CE peak of Mayan empire|
|Africa||2000 Kingdom of Kerma [Sudan]||200 Numidia [Algeria]||100CE Kingdom of Aksum [Ethiopia]||700CE Islam conquers all N.Africa|
NOTE:Names in [square brackets] are modern place names for reference. All dates are approximate and BCE, except where noted.
Levant, Jordan river valley - 15,000 years ago, towards the end of the last ice age, the climate in this region was mild with enough rain to make it fertile. Natufian culture agricultural settlements, with domesticated animals, have been dated as early as 11,000.
The oldest continously inhabited city-state is Jericho built about 7000, close to an earlier settlement.
Hittites 1900-1200 used chariots [Turkey]
approx 1450 Moses leads Jews to Israel
1200-500 Phoenicians on coast [Lebanon] were great sea-farers, sailed into Atlantic to Britain, also circumnavigated Africa. Phoenician alphabet is ancestor of all European writing.
970 Solomon king of Samaria (Israel) and Judah.
622CE Muhammed goes from Mecca to Medina - 632-750CE Muslim conquests.
Tigris and Euphrates river valleys (Mesopotamia) - The earliest temple, dated 9,000, was located on a hill at Göbekli Tepe [south Turkey]. Samarra, upper Tigris, 6000 early agriculture and pottery.
3500-1800 Sumer, group of city states in lower Tigris valley - First ever scripts. - first wheeled carts.
3300 Sumerian cuneiform script
2400 Assyria in upper valley; 600 Nineveh city of 12km circumference
2200 Babylon founded; 1772 first code of laws Hammurabi's Code, 539 Babylon destroyed by Persians
762CE Baghdad becomes capital of 3rd Muslim Caliphate and center of science.
Nile valley - Egypt - Earliest evidence of agriculture 6000 at Nabta Playa.
2600 3rd Dynasty -step pyramids at Saqqara, 2200 end of 6th Dynasty
2040 Egypt reunited (11th Dynasty)
1640 invasion of Hyksos; 1540 18th Dynasty territorial expansion
1250 Ramses II; 1200 split between Thebes [Luxor] and Memphis.
770 25th (Nubian) Dynasty; 525 Persian conquest
332 conquest by Alexander/
30 Roman conquest, Cleopatra.
Persia 2000-500 Persia various tribes from north ruled highlands of Persia, href="http://www.iranchamber.com/history/elamite/elamite.php">Elamites from Tigris valley ruled south with capital Susa
553 Cyrus the Great establishes Persian empire with capital Persepolis.
224CE Ardeshir overthrows last Parthian ruler; establishes Sassanian dynasty.
651CE - Arab conquest of the Sasanid Empire
Indus valley/India 2500 Indus valley agricultural settlements. script writing
1500 Invasian of Aryan tribes from central Asia.
1000-500 later Vedic age, establish 16 states throughout sub-continent.
500 Persian invasion.
326 Alexander invades Indus valley.
321-185 Mauryan empire
320CE-500CE Gupta empire - golden age.
720CE northern India captured by Muslims.
3000-1400 Minoa [Crete], developed Linear A script,
1628-1600 several volcanic eruptions of There [Santorini] caused collapse of Minoan civilization, tsunamis, severe climatic disruptions. 1600-1100 Mycenae [Greece].
600-333 Athens, democratic rule. Age of philosophers. 493 Battle of Marathon, defeat of Persians.
356-323 Alexander the Great conquers Greece, Egypt, Persia,
550 Carthage [Tunisia], took over Phoenician colonies throughout Mediterranean coasts - destroyed by Rome 146.
753 Rome founded. 168 Greece conquered, 58 Gaul [France] conquered, 30 Egypt conquered, 20 Britain conquered
325CE- Emperor Constantine christened and convenes the Christian Council of Nicaea. 455CE - Rome is sacked by the Vandals; 475CE - The Western Empire falls, Byzantium becomes the capital of the New Empire.
Central and eastern Europe - 6000-3000 Kurgan settlements throughout steppes north and east of Black Sea - possibly original Indo-European proto culture, which later spreads to western Europe, central Asia, Persia.
5000 copper [Prokuplje, Serbia] and gold smelting [Varna, Bulgaria] .
2000 two wheeled chariots
Northern and western Europe12,000 - 6000 Cave paintings . 4000 -1500 Stone age monuments, Carnac, Stonehenge.
1600-1200 Kurgan culture in central Europe , iron tools (Unetice) [Czech])
1000 Celtic culture spreads,
100 Rome conquers all of western Europe up to the river Rhine.
481CE Clovis unites Frankish tribes
778CE - Charlemagne conquers Italy, southern France, central Europe.
China 7000 Jiahu pottery, grain, flutes 6000 Yellow river settlements- first beer/wine
3000-2000 Longshan culture - Yellow River
2100-1600 X'ia Dynasty
1600-1100 Shang Dynasty, [Henan province] -1400 first Chinese writing, 1200 2-wheel chariots
1100-206 Zhou Dynasty [Xi'an] - 220 Qin Shi Huang builds Great Wall
206BCE-220CE Han Dynasty
580CE-618CE Sui Dynasty
618-906CE Tang Empire.
Americas Archeology of Americas. North America:3500-1000 Mounds cultures in central plains Watson Brake - 1200 Ancient Pueblo culture (SW USA).
Central America 1200 early Olmec cities and monuments. Mesoamerican cultures 600 Olmec writing.
300 rise ofMayan civilization, 200 Mayan script
North Africa2000 Kingdom of Kerma present [Sudan]
200 Numidia, Berber kingdom [Algeria]
100CE-900CE Kingdom of Aksum [Ethiopia]
South Africa Although there is evidence of modern human hunters, rock paintings and some settlement as far back as 5000BCE, so far no evidence of actual civilization earlier than about 500CE has been found
Climate changes Around 6000BCE a several hundred year long cooling (est. 3-5°) - drier climate in N..Africa and Middle East.
3800BCE abrupt cooling caused desertification of N.Africa and Arabian peninsula,
Flood All cultures around the world carry traditions of a great flood. Most likely these are memories of huge tsunamis caused by massive underwater earthquakes and violent volcanic eruptions (examples: 74,000 Mt.Toba, 1628 There [Santorini]).